Ziryab and singing Andalusian.

Ziryab, "The Blackbird"

Music was another the lessons that were taught in the Mosque of Cordoba where elfamoso Ziryab musician founded the first conservatory in the madrassa Islamic world and introduced Arabic chants known as Nuba. Their musical innovations also had a strong influence. Introduced in eastern melodies Hispania grecopersa source that would be the basis of much of the traditional music later at least part of the Iberian Peninsula.

Abu l-Hasan Ali ibn Nafi` the Blackbird Black, Ziryab, Born in Baghdad in 789. The nickname came to him because both the color of his skin as his beautiful voice reminiscent of a songbird of black plumage, Blackbird, in Arabic zyriab.

In his hometown was a student of musician Isaac to Mawsulf, the favorite of the Caliph Harun al-Rashind, famous through tales of "The Arabian Nights". Zyriab progress in the hands of the musician were such that his technique and his natural grace soon left behind the teacher and, as the story, in one of the demonstrations of his art he made to the caliph, dared present with a lute of his invention, with five strings and not the usual four before then and the plectrum with which I beat her eagle claw was not a wooden spike as those played at that time. The sound of his instrument and his melodious voice Haun made to feel with their music Rashind somewhat higher than I'd ever heard. He was so pleased that he asked to return on another day to the palace to continue reveling in her. This did not happen because his teacher what he felt was anger and, likely, envy. In the words of historian, Dozy, Isaac to Mawsulf told him "would not scruple" to kill him.

Zyriab, then, chose exile. The perfection of his music condemned to a life of stateless, and so went wandering for years to cities in Syria and North Africa, living in Cairo and across the deserts of Egypt and Libya, until established on Qayrawan and composing new tunes, according, he dictated the angels.
In this city received word of the splendor of Córdoba since "they had heard of him and wanted to see the voice that was unlike anyone else's and those songs handed down by angels".

With great excitement rushed to take a trip to the capital of Al-Andalus, across the sea and reaching Algeciras in May 822 when he was 33 age. Could finally settle in a city where his art and his knowledge would be appreciated. But again thought his bad luck returned and I should go back on his trail: nothing more land suppose that Al-Hakam I had just morir. The person who had promised many things and did not rule in Cordoba, and he was alone, in a place that anything I said and where I knew no one. So he decided to wait for a boat to take it back to North Africa. While awaiting, knew someone was asking for him. It was a Jewish musician Abu Nasr Mansur, I had arrived just in time to the port of Algeciras to inform you that Rahman II, the son of the late awaited him in his court. Now, the years of pilgrimage seemed that they had concluded Zyriab.
Both the musician and the emir had approximately the same age and almost the same tastes: music and books as the pleasure of the war did not exist in the ruling and had a great sensuality, giving even a character softness.

The Christian theologian Eulogio, contemporary of them would write of Rahman that, Cordoba "has sublimated with honors and its fame has spread everywhere, has greatly enriched and has become an earthly paradise ".

That's the Cordoba who knew Zyriab, in which it engaged in a real friendship with the Emir, that for nearly thirty years and that he never wanted to leave, thanking his lucky not to have fallen in Baghdad. Neither there nor in Byzantium had appreciated or paid as a musician and upon arrival was offered palace and bondage, "Monthly salary 200 gold coins and thousands more in each of the five hundred canonical festivals in San Juan and another five hundred in new year, plus 200 sextarios the scien barley wheat, and usufruct of several farmsteads in the countryside of Cordoba ". Rahman was sure that nowhere in the world there was a voice like Zyriab.

He taught the men of Cordoba glass vessels were more appropriate to sample the wine glasses gold heavy, and a banquet dishes should not be tested in a gross disorder, but in obedience to a ritual that began recording in soups and appetizers, continued with fish and then meat and delectable desserts concluded with the workers of the palace and the tiny cups of liquor.
He taught them to enjoy the taste of asparagus, that they ignored, although their stems grew spontaneously in Al-Andalus, and broad beans stews. He bequeathed to the city that bears his name plate "ziriabi" or salted roasted beans.

It ruled that from May to September suited white dress, and dark fabrics and fur coats should be reserved for the winter months. He taught them the taste for hair care, manicure and cleanliness and smoothness of the skin, having founded a beauty institute also, course, of a music school. He was also the one who introduced the game of chess in Al-Andalus.

Some Persian customs and superstitions that came with it still remain: the polo game, fear cravings of pregnant, the certainty that children who play with fire wet the bed and eating tails happens is good for the memory, fear of broken mirrors and the number thirteen.

And all these things that now seem so natural known and brought us the musician.
Zyriab created the first singing schools, developing a method of establishing phases vocal education vocalization, phrase, and lyrical declamation. He added a fifth string to the 'ud ( coinciding with the speculations of Al kindi ) and introduced to tañerlo feather. His teachings about music and instruments have great influence on his contemporaries Christians.

But the greatest contribution of this character to Arabic music was the creation of the nawba, a kind of classical suite ( Voice is instrumental ) Christian influences encompassing, Jewish and Berber, with classicism based Eastern. This expression made his way to the East preserved today as the classical suite wasla or eastern Andalusian origin. In her talk in our section of classical music, it is an expression that is preserved today in the Maghreb.

The Umayyad Cordoba. Antonio Muñoz Molina
The table Harun al- Rasid and flying Ziryab to Qurtuba
The singing school andalusi and Ziryab
Aziz Balouch, Ziryab reincarnation

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    All scenes are interesting analyzed, but from a musical standpoint we think the most important is the casket of Agostino. In her musical performer, the artist is not associated with other characters that are not the musical; appears only with other musicians to form a musical group, one Sitara.

    Another conclusion we can draw is that the music to be present in the art of eboraria, linked to the orbit art Caliphate demonstrates its acceptance by the social elite of this era.

    Perhaps this sita, or rather to the singer and lute tañedora the casket of Agostino devote the writer Ahmed Mohamed ben Yemeni while in Malaga the following account… “A woman began to sing verses very clear and sweet voice… There were several slaves tañedoras of lutes and drums and other instruments, such as the flute, but they did not touch… The slave singer sat apart and had the lute in the breast and all present spellbound watching her, listening carefully. She played and played and I stand there from where I saw them and they did not see me. When he sang a verse, I memorized until they sang a number of verses” (32).

  2. The only complete biography exists Ziryab, and recreating the ninth century Córdoba, is due to the Spanish writer and titled Jesus Greus “The prodigious history of Andalusia and the singer Sultan of Baghdad”. There is a revised reprint, the 2006, in Editorial Entrelibros, entitled “Ziryab and the awakening of Al Andalus”

  3. Dear Vincent, thanks for your information, look for the book by the network and enlazaré.
    Mr. Greus is author of another book on the Islamic period entitled “So lived in Al-Andalus : Ignored History”

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