121 Cordoba capitals in the Giralda

Andl Saturday, having tea at the home of Manuel parishioner, talked about the issues that usually also talked on this platform. At some point he left the issue of Imagined Museum of Cordoba, which Manuel said that he thought he was exhausted because they had already left the bulk of the pieces. The truth is that I was surprised that vision coming from a person so deeply aware of our history and our culture. Por supuesto que rápidamente me dispuse a hacerle ver que no solo no era cierto, but now the MIC was barely even a 10% the material can be expected to cover. I assured him that I had not yet located and publish at least as much as what today is published on our site. From all this and to certify what he had, I chose a resounding and dramatic example that left no doubt what he said.

If we in the MIC, in this time we have inventoried twenty califales capitals, solo la Giralda of Seville contains in its four facades 121 capitals torn from Medina Azahara. Another handful have Alcazares in Seville. This remains so massive plundering gives an idea of ​​the impressive quality of the factory Medina Azahara. His remains are extended with the intensity of water waves across the geography. To the north the remains come to Europe and south no record of them in the city of Marrakech.

But besides this incorporation of more than one hundred caliphal capitals Giralda tower, more so reinforces the Cordoba influences of this tower icon Sevilla. If it your first construction is inspired by the minaret of Córdoba, Manuel explained as well on your blog, Christian reform to give it belfry is adjudicated bankrupt the Cordovan architect Hernán Ruiz also amends Cordoba tower. There is a metaphorical way twinning of the two cities written in stone at this Seville Tower.

I found the Photo Library of the University of Seville (excellent indeed but little written references) a large collection of photographs of many of these capitals. There seem to be all, although it is possible that the photographer, who does custom work if I did the full. José María González-Nandín and photographer Paul Seville is the author of the photo 1923. I found very little biographical information about this prolific photographer (17.388 his photographs are in this hemeroteca) that was graphic chronicler of the early twentieth century in Seville.

So therefore, and to top, in one post I just multiply by six the number of caliphal capitals which realizes this page. But also, as Manuel le COMMENT, there is still much Cordovan all times material distributed worldwide. As I said earlier, This haul is the trail of water waves; closer to the creator to focus, more intensity remains.

The year 1010 begins “fitna” revolution or just with the Caliphate of Córdoba. Berber or Moorish mercenaries military, assault and destroy the great courtesans and harassed by the Cordoba people creations are enclosed in Medina Azahara, where they commit all sorts of depredations and a huge fire just with the wonderful creation. In the final assault, Azahara recent settlers take refuge in the Mosque, where the soldiers mercilessly slaughters women and children, and after six months of plunder and death, way out of ports trying to return to African soil.

After the great fire in the city and after the abandonment of it by his Berber troops looting and destruction begins, sold as scrap by inept rulers of the city metals, such as door knobs and lead channels. A century later, in the Almoravid period, columns and rich pieces ripped to apply in distant buildings. Another century later, Almohads continued to use materials wherever Medina Azahara raised their large buildings, both Sevilla, as in Marrakesh. The Alcázar of Seville contains lots of caliphal capitals, retaining the dates and the Cordovan caliphs praises. In the windows of the Giralda in Seville are counted 121 capitals from Medina Azahara and only three purely almohades.

In 1555 the oldest draft top of the tower is presented, project was rejected by the council. He was the author the architect Diego de Vergara, Master of the Cathedral of Malaga, crown and the proposed tower with a pyramidal top, oak, lined “Moorish plates and given golden Aleton, which long relumbrará”. Two years later, in 1557, the Seville chapter convova a new open competition between Spanish architects to solve the problem of the final auction, and 5 January 1558 has approved the project submitted by the Cordovan architect Hernán Ruiz Jimenez, Young, immediately begin work on the beautiful Mannerist bell, who finished in 1565. This architectural work is completed saw, from this date, with the pictorial program, following standards Pacheco, executed the master Luis de Vargas and his team, and that hardly vestiges in the walls of the tower.

Another century later, Almohads continued to use materials wherever Medina Azahara raised their large buildings, both Sevilla, as in Marrakech. The Alcázar of Seville contains lots of caliphal capitals, retaining the dates and the Cordovan caliphs praises. In the windows of the Giralda in Seville are counted 121 capitals from Medina Azahara and only three purely almohades.
After the conquest of Cordoba in 1236 by Fernando III of Santo, Medina Azahara is only an unfortunate and ruin the stone blocks of its walls are obtained for the construction of churches in Cordoba, convents, palaces and bridges. The palace city of Abderrahman had lost even the memory of his name and Ambrosio de Morales, the great historian and chronicler of Philip II, He even said that the ruins were Roman, although Pedro Diaz de Rivas, Contemporary Cordovan, wrote a book to prove that they were those of the great Moorish palace built by Abderrahman III.

Source of this support: Francisco J. Castejón Calderón – Webislam


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  1. Magnificent, Publican. I am not able to relate these data dating moments or roughly scholars: I traded the game tomorrow… But he had knowledge, based on whether founded on, or was mere hearsay Local chauvinist, the Ahmed Ibn-Basso own, master builder of the Seville Great Mosque and the famous minaret, Cordoba was also, centuries later it was also who crowned the structure, Hernan Ruiz, as well Indica. I do not know where I have taken the news. Could someone pull the thread to the delight of the beleaguered opposition budding?

  2. Nor why you had that way apabullar, abusón! It's like if someone says: this year it will not rain over the next day and have to leave your house with canoe.

    I really stunned he stayed. He knew about the capitals, but I know why, I had always thought, without properly informing, clear, that would be a handful. Now you have to fulfill your threat and give us a new post each week MIC…

    Mabuse, do not worry I've already recommended. Primero Believe St. Expedite, but as it is impossible for me seemed excessive, because surely what you need is a simple murmur brunt Exam. So I looked to Saint Gemma, that through the intercession of my mother made me pass over one “bone”. Although the holy virgin and mértir I was in Heaven trying solarium tanning dead skin that you always put, agreed to lend a hand.


    • What good! Some years ago (enough), my opponent journey on the path of High, reached my ears that my wife had a nun aunt in Santa Marta. How did not you tell me before!, the contested. We went to talk to her, aware that you may have any recommendations for a private school or related (scruples if necessary must be left aside). In the end, what all those nun aunt… And he goes and shows me a holy card of St. Joseph of Cupertino, holy flying. But this Santa Gema is unmatched. The print it and put it, by the DNI, parallel form to another of San Rafael, which I know also gives good results.

        • Well brought the buzzword 'escape'. And this precisely because I have once again fallen into the ambush of a grossly unfair system that, despite the timid attempts to rationalize, still prevails certain judgments or referees who drive the initiative or effort but simply aspects of the employee who usually become attitudes' tocapelotas’ as seniority.

          Yes, Manuel. I have finished second in the opposition, three or four tenths of the former and plenty of the third… but sixth in the total amount of competition. And how it happened that there were five seats… for that, I've been to a single tenth of the latter. The usual. Of the five that get just one square, the first, also without the machine gun was loaded prevend, has obtained a place. Chapó por él. It has earned. Of the rest I reserve judgment and qualifiers. At least, demand graduates Olympic medal since no. And what possible claim while in term.

          Not the right place to discuss this. Understand it perfectly al Tabernero erased this comment. Here comes to talk about beautiful things really: Giralda, Madinat al-Zahra, de Ibn Basso, Hernán Ruiz family of Ali and Gumara. In this sense I am still looking for the origin of the famous minaret and the Sevillian master builder I have found something… But I claim it here a minute of silence for all the brave opponents who lose their hair nails and sometimes without, removing time, usually years, of their lives and those of their own, studying subjects sometimes horrendous, sometimes vocational, to get a job. Because not all staff are a 'tocapelotas'.

          Santa Gema And tell you how I would help if I was jinxed!! (In this detail in the art thou fallen, Manuel). Thank you very much for your interest (and the Innkeeper, of course).

        • Go! that bitch, sorry Doctor.
          Your destiny seems that there was no written, sure holds a fate you better.

  3. Elaborating on the possible hermamiento metaphor representing the Giralda in Seville, I found an interesting fact about the tower that reinforces this idea more so-hard.
    Hernan Ruiz II, the architect of the reform of the minaret died 21 April 1569, being buried, deference of the Metropolitan Council, the foot of the Giralda.
    These burials, a mythological bury both the artist with his work, and the Egyptians did but it seems that it was fashionable Andalusia also also Pedro Duque Cornejo, author of the choir stalls of the Cathedral of Cordoba is buried at the foot of this.

  4. The phenomenon of plunders in Almohad period is very strong. A single individual, Imb called B § AA, obtained the operating rights of the Umayyad era Inb plunders in al-Saqq §” (died in the 1063. As trade plunders architectural materials (not only capiteles) was widespread and organized by the Almohad State. Most of these were pillaged to Sevilla. Not only Catadral capitals in Seville, but in RRAA, and most of the Almohad palace in Seville, and the Maghreb.

    Check articles:

    Bermúdez: Precalifales capitals in the Mudejar Palace of King Don Pedro: type, talleres y reempleo (ROMVLA nº3)

    Cressier(1994): "Diffusion and reused capitals after the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba. Architectural policy and political architecture " , VIe Colloque international. North Africa ancient and medieval. African production and exports. Archaeological News, CTHS, Paris, (1994), p. 159-187. Paris, 211 246.

  5. José Manuel, thank you very much for the links. So I could have read are very interesting. It just does not match the full network to read and I've become very comfortable, almost believe that if it is not on the network, there.
    Now! your search has given me some awards. As I leave this here to take note that Manuel and his visits to this city, attempt to bring some pictures of them.

  6. Good, the truth is that C. I always encouraged me to impersonate Muslim and so to enter the Moroccan mosques. The truth is that I could do it because I know enough of Islam abracadabra, course roughly dodging the suspicions of the guards, but the possibility of being caught and forced to teach the tests, that is a necessary condition of my circumcised, always keep me away. No shame, but if once found myself insist on the same simple operation there, Mojoso knife and a head-cloth as a grubby bandage.

    So do you go to meet with the desire to me to risk tol nose enter the Mosque Qasbah Marrakshi so that you may see some photos of some capitelitos.

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