Almanzor (938-1002)

Documentary TVE 2nd string into three parts.

Superb documentary produced by Spanish TV where a thorough description of the figure of Al-Mansur Billah performed (Almanzor), character in the history of Cordoba which extended, doubling its volume, the building of the Mosque of Cordoba, fact which unfortunately does not reference this documentary.

accompanying text to video,es.

“Abu ʿ Amir Muhammad Ben Abi ʿ Amir al-Ma ʿ afirí (Arabic, Abu Amer Mohammed bin Abi Amer Ibn Abdullah Almaafra), called Al-Mansur billah (Mansour God), Victorious victorious by Allah or Allah, better known as Almanzor (c. 938 – Medinaceli (?), 11 August 1002), was a military and political Andalusian, leader of the Cordoba Caliphate of Hisham II and earned.


Although there are doubts about the exact date of his birth it appears that this occurred sometime in the year 938. There came within an Arab landowning family of Yemeni origin,1 of the tribe Mâafir, established since the conquest of Visigothic Hispania in Turrux, a farmhouse belonging to the Heart of Algeciras, near the mouth of the river Guadiaro.2 Here his family had received from the hands of Tarik Ben Ziyad some land as a reward for outstanding performance of an ancestor, Muza general name of Abd Al-Malik,3 in conquering Yazirat Carteia and Al-Hadra Al-Year 711.4 The abundance of names derived from Arabic Turrux in Andalusia, mainly in the provinces of Malaga and Granada has meant that several cities have been mistakenly identified as the cradle of military andalusí.5
Some functions amiríes occupied Kadi and lawyers involved in the Yemeni ma'afir. His father, Abd Allah, is described as a pious man, kind and ascetic, who died in Tripoli as he returned to his pereginación The Meca.1 His maternal grandfather stood in the reign of Abd al-Rahman III as a physician and minister of the Caliph.
Very young, ammad ibn ʿ Amir se trasladó forever to Córdoba, where he finished his law studies and Lyrics under the tutelage of his uncles. After holding a modest position in memorializing the Mosque of Cordoba, the young soon noted for his brilliant qualities and began his political career as a clerk in the courtroom of the chief qadi of the capital, Muhammad ibn al-Salim. He soon caught the attention of wily vizier Jafar al-Mushafi, Master of civil administration, to introduce into the Caliphate Court.

In Cordoba Court

On 967 became mayor of Prince Rahman, son and heir of the Caliph Al-Hakam II and his favorite, the vascona Subh, with which it established a privileged relationship extremely beneficial to your career. Become director of the mint, in 968 was appointed treasurer of the caliph. The following year, was promoted to qadi of Seville and Niebla and 970, death of Prince Rahman, becomes the administrator of the young heir, Hisham. He began to fill their pockets with money from the royal treasury, being accused of embezzlement. However, through his contacts, was able to make up the accounts and no longer go unpunished, but benefited from the process. So, Almanzor received an official apology and obtained command of the middle shurta (police).
Already become one of the most important characters of the Caliphate, was made to build a sumptuous palace in Al-Rusafa, a friends to be the capital of Norte. Shortly after he became qadi of the Umayyad great possessions in the Maghreb, which allowed him to establish close relations with the Berber chiefs.

The seizure of power

The death of Caliph Al-Hakam II in 976 inaugurated a new period in the political career of Almanzor. Al-Andalus at that time was going through a serious crisis of succession, because the designated successor, Hisham, born in 965, I was too young to reign. In this situation, environment of the deceased was divided. There were those who were in favor of appointing a regent, al-Mushafi, while others preferred to give the title caliph brother of the deceased, al-Mughira. Feeling that this designation would entail the end of his political career, Al-Mushaf al-Mughira we decided Murderer, and to work so vile chose the ambitious and unscrupulous Almanzor.
This surrounded the palace of al-Mughira with a detachment of one hundred soldiers of Slavic origin, broke in him and notified the infant's death and the enthronement of Caliph Hisham II. The young man was terrified and expressed loyalty and obedience to his nephew. Then, being unsure of Almanzor, al-Mushafi demanded the fulfillment of the agreement, so the wretched al-Mughira was strangled before their women and hanging from a beam of the roof, as if he had committed suicide. As police chief, Almanzor rushed to conceal the crime and ordered his victim was buried right there.
Hisham II Caliph was inaugurated Monday morning 4 the safar the 366 H6 with the title of al-Mu'yyad bi-llah, namely, which receives the assistance of God victorious. Was instructed to take the oath of allegiance to the people, before the new caliph, su tutor, Chief of Police Media, of the Mint and Inheritance Vacancies, Almighty and Omnipresent Abū Muḥammad ibn ʿ Āmir. Six days after his inauguration, the 8 October 976, Hisham appointed prime minister or hajib al-Mushafi and vizier and chief of hayib Mansur, I had then 36 years old.
However, relations between the two deteriorated soon after and to gain new allies, Ibn Abi Amir used many stratagems. It was proposed to take control of the army, and it did not hesitate to make Generalissimo Galib, the powerful governor Brand Media. Participated in several campaigns to curry favor with the military and married Asma, Galib's daughter. The sympathy of the population is attracted to restore order in Córdoba and multiplied her pious gestures to win over the fuqaha (jurists, ALFAQUI) malikíes: so, Calif library censured and ordered to destroy the works of philosophy and astronomy judged incompatible with Sunni orthodoxy. In this sense, copied the Quran with his own hand and made to expand the mosque of Cordoba some years later, in 987.

Almanzor, leader of Al-Andalus

His demagogic and populist politics allowed him to gain new supporters and give a real coup. In 978 expelled al-Mushafi and became hayib. The following year saved the prince of a plot and from that moment began to appear as El Salvador dynasty caliph and protector. With this title transfer from the Administration Medina Azahara Medina Alzahira, your personal residence, whose construction began in 979 and lasted two years. In 994 Lady in OFFICER sus the caliph Mansur power in, which detained his master in the golden cage Medina Alzahira. This policy was strongly opposed by his father Galib, but the latter ended up defeated and killed at the Battle of Torre Vicente, not far from Atienza. Despite su kinship, Mansur did not hesitate to kill the prestigious military to pave the road that would lead him to power, and was not deprived of his wife Asma send the head of his unfortunate father.
Muhammad ibn Abū ʿ Āmir then adopted the honorary title (laqb) Al-Mansur and began to reign as a true master of al-Andalus. Contrary to a widespread opinion, neither he nor his successors took on the epithet laqb bi-l-llah, including the word Allah, certainly prudence, attributed to avoid own honorific of the caliphs.
After Subh divert power, Almanzor hizo asesinar several dignitaries annoying, as Dja'far ibn Hamdun (983), al-Mughira (984), Askaladja own cousin or even Ibn al-Rumahis, Admiral of the Fleet Caliphate. Another highlight of his domestic policy was the increased presence of foreign troops in the army, a policy initiated by Rahman III after the defeat of Simancas (939). Thus quotas Berbers settled near Elvira Sanhadja (Granada), Maghrawa (in the mountainous region of Córdoba) and Banu Banu Birzal and Ifrane in the region of Jaén. This policy was intended to ward off Arab opponents army and allow Almanzor faithful warriors surround yourself only to himself, and hated by the local population, prevented what could betray.

Campaigns Maghreb

Almanzor continued in the Maghreb Umayyad policy intended to control the outputs of the desert trade routes, arriving by slaves and gold. Never personally intervened and chose to rely on the Berber tribes zanata, particularly the Banu Maghrawa, Ifrane and the Banu Banu Miknasa. This allowed him to counter the influence of the Fatimids who, after moving to Egypt, had left these regions under the control of the Zirids. The strategy began by Amiri fortification of coastal cities, Ceuta, and building a citadel on Belyounesh. In 980 zanata tribes seized the city Sidjilmasa, where merging a pro-principality ruled by the Andalusian Ibn Khazrun Falful. The Zirids were quick to react and, after being attacked in Ceuta 980, in 991 inflicted a major defeat at the Cordoba troops.
In 994 founded for their benefit a small principality centered in Oujda, soon allied with Almanzor to shake the Fatimid guardianship. When 997 revolted against Córdoba, Almanzor sent an army under his son Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar, that crushed the rebels within

Raids against Christians

Control over the African gold Almanzor allowed to have almost unlimited funds and minting dinars reaffirming its prestige. Alongside campaigns Maghreb, Almanzor was devoted to the war against the Christian kingdoms of Spain. Nothing less than 52 Almanzor raids conducted between 978 and 1001:
981 – Zamora
985 – Barcelona
987 – Coimbra
988 – Sahagun and Eslonza
997 – Braga and Santiago de Compostela
999 – Pamplona
1000 – Battle of Cervera
1002 – San Millan de la Cogolla
In the summer of 997, ravaged Santiago de Compostela, after Bishop Pedro de Mezonzo7 evacuate the city. He burned the Romanesque church dedicated to Santiago, respecting his grave. This allowed continuity Camino de Santiago. Legend has it that Christian prisoners charged with temple bells to Cordoba and Santiago, apparently, They made their way back two centuries and a half later, Muslim prisoners when Fernando III, the Holy recovered for Christendom.
He was killed by natural causes, dying the 73 years old. The exact place of death is unknown, as biographical data are diluted between the historical and the legendary, but most likely it was in Medinaceli – Madinat al-Salim. The judgment Silense Recap:
But, at last, divine mercy pitied so much ruin and allowed Christians to lift head, past twelve years as Mansur was killed in the great city of Medina, and the devil had dwelt within him in life took him to hell.
Before he died he named his son successor Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar, sparking a civil war among his successors and Hisham II.
His body was covered with canvas wove their daughters with their own hands and the raw material came from the estate inherited from their ancestors in Turrox, plot of his race. On his remains placed a brick made of dust, after each battle against Christians, their servers cleaned their clothes. The corpse, so provided, received first burial at the border, before being transferred to Cordoba. According to the Arab historian Ibn Idari, The following verses were carved in marble, by way of epitaph:
His footprints on the earth will teach history,
like if you saw with your own eyes.
God would never bring another similar time,
to dominate the peninsula
and lead armies as he

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